Blown Film Extrusion Introduction

Blown Film Extrusion Introduction Blown film extrusion is a technology that is the most common method to make plastic films, especially for the packaging industry. The process involves extruding a tube of molten polymer through a die and inflating to several times its initial diameter to form a thin film bubble. This bubble is then … Continue reading “Blown Film Extrusion Introduction”

Blown Film Extrusion Introduction
Blown film extrusion is a technology that is the most common method to make plastic films, especially for the packaging industry. The process involves extruding a tube of molten polymer through a die and inflating to several times its initial diameter to form a thin film bubble. This bubble is then collapsed and used as a lay-flat film or can be made into bags. Usually polyethylene is used with this process, and other materials can be used as blends with these polymers. A diagram of a polyethylene chain is shown in Figure 1 to the right.
Background Theory on Polymers

In the cooling step of blown film extrusion, the amorphous, transparent melt crystallizes to form a translucent, hazy, or opaque film. The point where opacity begins in the bubble is known as the frost line. 
Fig 1: Model of polytheylene chain frompolyethylene Wikipedia article.The frost line height is controlled by several parameters: the air flow, film speed, and temperature difference between the film and the surroundings. Properties of the film, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, toughness, and optical properties, drastically change depending on the orientation of the molecules. As the transverse or hoop direction properties increase, the machine or longitudinal direction properties decrease. For instance, if all the molecules were aligned in the machine direction, it would be easy to tear the film in that direction, and very difficult in the transverse direction.

The Film Blowing machine Process

Fig 2: Schematic of set-up from User:J.Chiang.

Typically, blown film extrusion is carried out vertically upwards, however horizontal and downward extrusion processes are now becoming more common. Figure 2 shows a schematic of the set-up for blown film extrusion. This procedure consists of four main steps: The polymer material starts in a pellet form, which are successively compacted and melted to form a continuous, viscous liquid. This molten plastic is then forced, or extruded, through an annular die. Air is injected through a hole in the center of the die, and the pressure causes the extruded melt to expand into a bubble. The air entering the bubble replaces air leaving it, so that even and constant pressure is maintained to ensure uniform thickness of the film. The bubble is pulled continually upwards from the die and a cooling ring blows air onto the film. The film can also be cooled from the inside using internal bubble cooling. This reduces the temperature inside the bubble, while maintaining the bubble diameter. After solidification at the frost line, the film moves into a set of nip rollers which collapse the bubble and flatten it into two flat film layers. The puller rolls pull the film onto windup rollers. The film passes through idler rolls during this process to ensure that there is uniform tension in the film. Between the nip rollers and the windup rollers, the film may pass through a treatment centre, depending on the application. During this stage, the film may be slit to form one or two films, or surface treated. Advantages Blown film generally has a better balance of mechanical properties than cast or extruded films because it is drawn in both the transverse and machine directions. Mechanical properties of the thin film include tensile and flexural strength, and toughness. The nearly uniform properties in both directions allow for maximum toughness in the film.
Blown film extrusion can be used to make one large film, two smaller ones, or tubes that can be made into bags. Also, one die can make many different widths and sizes without significant trimming. This high level of flexibility in the process leads to less scrap material and higher productivity. Blown films also require lower melting temperatures than cast extrusion. Measured at the die opening, the temperature of cast film is about 220 C, where as the temperature of blown film is about 135 C. Furthermore, the cost of the equipment is approximately 50% of a cast line.

Blown Film Extrusion Disadvantages Blown film has a less effective cooling process than flat film. Flat film cooling is done by means of chill rolls or water, which have significantly higher specific heat capacities than the air that is used in the blown film cooling process. The higher specific heat capacity allows the substance to absorb more heat with less change in the substance temperature. Compared to cast film, blown film has a more complicated and less accurate method to control film thickness; cast film has a thickness variation of 1 to 2% versus the 3 to 4% for blown film. The resins used for casting typically have a lower melt flow index, which is the amount of polymer that can be forced through a standard die in 10 minutes according to a standard procedure. The melt flow index for cast film is about 5.0 g/10 min where as for blown film it is about 1.0 g/10 min. Consequently, the production rates for cast film are higher: cast film lines can reach production rates of up to 300m/min where as blown film lines are usually less than half this value. And finally, cast film has better optical properties, including transparency, haze, and gloss.

Common Problems Air entrapment between film layers and rollers – this may cause film scratching or wrinkling, or processing problems when winding up the film due to reduced friction. Possible solutions to this is using a vacuum to remove entrapped air or by using winding rolls with a diamond shaped groove in the rubber cover to increase surface area and decrease amount of entrapped air in the film. Large output fluctuations from the die – this causes thickness variations, and can be prevented by keeping the extruder clean and by using more consistently shaped pellets in the extruder. Melt fractures – these appear as roughness or wavy lines on the film surface, and can be eliminated by lowering the viscosity of the polymer melt. This can be done by increasing the melting temperature or by adding an internal lubricant to the material composition. Thickness variations in the film – this can be avoided by centering the die in the extrusion line before every run, adjusting the air speed of the cooling system, or by using heated die lips. Die lines on the surface of the film – this defect reduces the aesthetic appeal of the film, reduces optical properties, and weakens mechanical properties such as tear strength. This can usually be avoided by routinely cleaning the inner surfaces of the die and by refinishing scratched or roughened flow surfaces. Gels – these defects are small, hard globules encapsulated in the film or stuck on the film surface and reduce the aesthetic appeal of the film and cause stress concentration points which may result in premature failure. These are caused by overheating to the point of polymer degradation in the die, and can therefore be avoided by cleaning the inner surfaces of the die on a regular basis. Optimization of the Process Coextrusion One way to improve the line efficiency of blown film extrusion is to implement coextrusion. This is the process of extruding two or more materials simultaneously through a single die. The orifices in the die are arranged such that the layers merge together before cooling. This process saves time because it extrudes two or more layers at the same time, and it provides a method with fewer steps to produce multilayer films. The production rate for a coextruded multilayer film of three layers is about 65m/min, and the production rate for a single layer of blown film is about 130m/min. Thus, in order to produce 10 000m of a three layer multilayer film, it would take almost 4 hours using a single layer blown film process, and only 2 and a half hours using the coextrusion process. Furthermore, the film produced from the single layer process would require an extra step to glue the layers together using some sort of adhesive. Coextrusion is the least expensive means of producing layered films and the coextrusion system is capable of quick changeovers to minimize production line down time.

Minimizing the Melt Temperature
The efficiency of blown film extrusion can be improved by minimizing the temperature of the polymer melt. Reduction of the melt temperature causes the melt to require less heating in the extruder. Normal extrusion conditions have a melting temperature at about 190 C despite the fact that the temperature of the melt only needs to be about 135 C. However, it is not always practical to decrease the melting temperature by that much. By decreasing the melt temperature 2 to 20 C, the motor load can be decreased by about 1 to 10%. Furthermore, reduction of the melt temperature causes less need for cooling, so there is a reduced use of the cooling system. Moreover, removing heat from the bubble is usually the rate-limiting factor in this extrusion process, so by having less heat in the polymer to remove, the rate of the process can be increased, thus yielding higher productivity. A way to maintain the melt temperature at a minimum is to choose an extruder that is matched to the specific processing conditions, such as the material of the melt, pressure, and throughput.

Heated Extrusion Die Lips
Typically, solutions to melt fractures involve decreasing the output or increasing the melt temperature to decrease the shear stress in the extruder. Both of these methods are not ideal because they both reduce the efficiency of the blown film line. Heated extrusion die lips can solve this problem. This targeted heating method allows for film extruders to be run at higher production rates with narrower die gaps while eliminating melt fractures. Direct heat is applied to the surface of the polymer melt as it exits the die so that viscosity is reduced. Therefore, melt fractures, which are caused when trying to extrude too much of the polymer at one time, will no longer act as a limiting factor to increasing the production rate. Furthermore, heated die lips use less energy than increasing the melting temperature because only the surface of the melt is heated and not the bulk of the liquid. Another benefit of using heated die lips is that thickness variations can be controlled by adding heat to certain areas along the die circumference to make the film at that position thinner. This would ensure that no excess material is used.
Determine how much energy each of these processes can save per given volume of material. 

Above article from www.appropedia.org

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You Will Find Great Rentals Close to You

Should you be looking for the good home however you are not somewhat all set for your dedication that may originate from choosing a house, click here to find out more about how precisely anybody can let a property. There are numerous associated with rentals that would be wonderful for yourself and your family. Think about the size of lettings that you might want after which you can think of a program to get started doing finding one of these.

It truly is privileged to understand which a property owner is obtainable to help you all through this process. He’ll talk to people about the different things that must be done so available started with choosing a pleasant local rental. When it’s time that you can obtain a house, this really is something that they are open to aid in. Wait and see and don’t forget that there are several nice rentals obtainable. If you don’t discover something right away, keep looking and you will probably locate it before you realize it.

Consult with the house manager to learn more about what’s required from you concerning a new lease contract. Look over any agreement and they are generally thrilled to reply to any questions you might have. This really is something that many people are have to eventually.

Services – My Most Valuable Tips

What You need to Know About the Tradebit Marketplace

Basically, Tradebit is one of the largest download store, equipped with millions of manuals, songs, eBooks and more. You can even publish any of your digital work in Tradebit, just pay for a small fee through PayPal.

Setting Up Your Account

As you set up your Tradebit account, you have to have a verified PayPal account and you have need to have permission to sell the digital products that you’re offering. Smaller files can be uploaded through your web browser via the upload wizard; files are considered small when they are less than 60 MB. On the other hand, the larger files need to use some kind of FTP like Filezilla. All accounts come with a free subdomain that the user can setup after they receive their account.

Features of the Group

A lot of the users and clients tend to overlook the group set up on Tradebit, without knowing that it’s an amazing sales feature. Discount groups and member areas are two of the most common functions of the group. Users can assign discounts to certain groups and connect files as well as users to the group; in case you want the members to download files for free, assign 100%. Users who log in receive discounts, also a groups memberships that are supported receive payments; the payments can be on a weekly, monthly and spot pay schedule.

Invitations to Your Groups

The invitation link is typically offered by the admin section from Tradebit. You can add the email address of others when you want to invite them into your group; also, email invitations can also be sent out for your partners and friends. They will automatically be redirected to your groups after their free sign up in Tradebit.

Other Miscellaneous Questions

How Payment is Received
The schedule for payments are every Wednesday through the merchant or seller’s PayPal account. All your payouts are delayed three weeks, so this means that every payment which you will receive are payments made on transactions that occurred three weeks before. Any suspicious activity found on any account will result in delayed payouts.

How to Increase Your Sales

Tradebit has earned a high rank in search engine results. Of course that’s not all that you need in order to generate more sales. Be mindful of the keywords that you use on the file’s keywords and descriptions; use relevant and good keywords. Descriptions that look like they weren’t given much thought or are just too short are unlikely to gain the attention of viewers and potential buyers. You can also create and post some online advertisement for some or all the files that you offer. Another option is to use your affiliate link to Tradebit, so you’ll receive money even though the viewers did not purchase the file but bought something from the catalogue.

Source: http://www.mysweetsavings.com/home/2016/10/27/want-to-stretch-your-family-budget-even-more-read-this.html

6 Facts About Downloads Everyone Thinks Are True

Facts on Trade Bit

An amazing fact to highlight is that Trade bit is a new virtual market shop that is based in Germany and is a new player in the e-commerce space. According to online reviews, the site purports to be selling a lot of things in a bundled package that is not only cheaper but easier to shop for. In one review a customer stated that they were able to buy a repair manual, a karaoke track, a self-help book and an animal sound effect all in one basket.

The site is reputed to have a site that is easy to navigate and make purchases and the files can be delivered to the customer’s email address as soon as they make an order and it has been said it is comparable to an online flea market. There is a client that had a review with the site and the customer claims to have ordered a factory repair manual for their car only for them to receive a handbook that was out of order, incomplete and was totally illegible and the client could not make heads or tails of the content in the magazine. It is important to state that the customer was able to contact the site and get a refund from the place after they confirmed from the car makers that the mix-up was on their end since they were in the process of changing their manuals but the customer still reiterated that the site should improve on its feedback mechanisms.

In an alternate review, a customer noted that the site had improved on their feedback and they were now offering a very efficient customer service support and they had improved on their delivery of digital content. According to the Better Business Bureau, the site is not accredited by them but according to a review done by the better business bureau customers have lodged complaints with Trade bit based on various issues such as advertising, delivery issues, warranty issues, problems with products and services and billing or collection issues. In view of four customer reviews, the Trade Bit site has received three positive reviews and one negative review and the site has not yet faced any government action involving its marketplace conduct and it has been given no advertising review about the site. The business has an overall rating of 4.4 out of the 5 stars based on four customer reviews and a Better Business Review rating of A. An incredible fact to state is that There are mixed reactions around this site but as a new site it is bound to get some negative reviews but only time will tell whether this site will be the next big thing in the e commerce space or it will fizzle out with time.

Source: http://www.supercars.net/blog/auto-know-look-dream-car/

What No One Knows About Services

What You Can Get From Selling Through Tradebit

When it comes to the tradebit download website, you as an ordinary individual can start publishing your digital products and downloads, within just a short time. It is important to note that the tradebit download website will ask their users to verify their accounts through a small payment through online pay schemes. The hosting and the sale of the files will be free throughout. As the websites sell your digital files and products, the commissions will then be on the products that you are going to sell and will be provided to you. Then, the tradebit download website will also provide you with the free subdomain storefront as you need them.

Either through online payment websites or credit cards, the tradebit download website can ask for the payments for their digital products through these forms. When it comes to how the commissions are processed, payments can be processed through the best interests of the merchants and then their commissions are sent to them weekly. There are also features that you can place on your websites and link to the tradebit download website. There are questions that you can find below, with all the answers.

There are merchant user panels on the tradebit download website in order to guide the needs of the merchants and the buyers logging into the services. It is best that you can use the tradebit download platform in order to provide the files secured and protected, and then provide the products for the best uses of these business people and sellers.

Digital marketplace are among the most lucrative forms of electronic commerce for your needs. Today, sales are not just confined to merchandise that is about tangible stuff. Services are also going beyond just the usual jobs that are rendered by people over to you, but products are turning ever so digital that they can become intangible and can let you earn some money.

It is important that the products, files and materials and others present in the digital marketplace are falling in a rather different category. Today, these kinds of products sold in the digital marketplace are ranging from books, music, videos and images, even full movies for instance. You should know that the files that are present in the digital marketplaces are now being extended over to plugins, website themes, website templates, photo templates, programs and applications as well. It has always been a challenge to find the best digital marketplace in order to sell your work.

Source: http://www.supercars.net/blog/auto-know-look-dream-car/

A Quick Overlook of Shirts – Your Cheatsheet

Earning Online: Customized T-shirt Printing Drop-shipment Business

Didn’t you know that it is easy to earn money online without having to actually manufacture or create the product by yourself? It is called drop-shipment. The actual merchant does not see or handle the product, because once an order is accepted, the merchant orders it from a third-party who directly ships it to the consumer. If you want to sell customized t-shirts but does not have the means and the time in the world to create or manufacture one, you can definitely rely from the expertise of a good drop shipper. There are a lot of online drop-shipment companies who can help you with everything you’ll need to start selling customized t-shirts. Yes, it is now possible to sell your art without lifting a finger with the help of a drop shipper.

Customized t-shirt drop-shipment companies provide white-label solutions printing t-shirts under your business brand, featuring your company name, logo, message or signature. The fulfillment company charges you, you charge the customer, and you’ll get easy money at no time. A good and reputable drop-shipment company doesn’t charge any membership fees, and no minimum order required. You can have a personalized product out of your brand through business name and logo printing in the t-shirt tag or neckline, on the return label, packing slip and anything you propose. Some drop shippers also accept customized printing on mugs, phone cases, wallets, towels, key chains and other medium your customer request.

You should be assured that the products coming from your drop-shipper is of good quality since it is a representation of you and your company. Researching helps you gain awareness, knowledge and understanding through product reviews, blogs and articles from real people who experienced the actual product or service. A reputable, reliable and trusted drop-shipment fulfillment center should have easy website navigation, responsive support staff and duly licensed, certified or recommended. Through the internet, you can set up your own customized t-shirt online store without any investment, and allow a drop-shipper to take care of the rest for you. Now you can create your own product line, showcase your art designs, expose your merchandise to major selling platforms or marketplaces, eliminating trouble of posting, shipping and handling returns, established and secured ordering system, and free customer support via chat, phone or community forum. Now you can build your brand without having the actual knowledge and experience in the printing process, and still be able to learn the ins and outs of your business along the way. Do not compromise your online business by fly by night drop shippers, find or search the best and the greatest.

Source: Ecommerce

Incredible Lessons I’ve Learned About Education

Choosing a Good Elementary School Now it’s your kids turn to level up in his or her education and will need to be enrolled in a really good elementary school. One of the main priorities of parents is the development of their children which mostly takes place in the school for most of their lives. This article will show you some tips on how to properly engage in this venture. It is always stressed by a lot of educators around the world how important it is to send a child to a good educational facility because it helps them develop appropriate behaviour and good manners. You need to make the world a better place by making sure the next generation is an educated bunch. Is the elementary school you are thinking of enrolling your kids in the right one? What does this school have that would make it appropriate for the young ones in your family? People, particularly the parents, need to go over these aspects because they would be crucial to a child’s development. The safety of the place is what should be considered first and foremost. Part of what makes a place safe or not is the location so you have to consider this more than anything else. What do you think would be the obvious decision if the place in question is basically near an area where child kidnappings occurred? Once you are assured of the safety of the place then you need to check out the kind of educators it has. It is important to see how an educator acts in front of you. In a place for learning, this is the most essential quality in the world. You need to first establish the character of your child’s would-be mentors because that is something that would affect their learning. Once you are satisfied with your answer, it’s now time for you to pay attention to the teacher’s abilities. You’ll probably know all the answers to these questions when you do an educational background check. When did the teacher get his or her degree? You don’t just need an exceptional teacher, but a really good grade school teacher at that. There are so many factors to consider but these are usually the more important ones to keep in mind.
A Simple Plan For Researching Education
The future of your child is dependent upon your decision on this matter so make sure an excellent one is made as much as possible. If you need help concerning these particular matters then you have to consider these tips and make sure your child is sent to the best grade school there is. This is definitely a crucial step in the molding of a child.Study: My Understanding of Classes

What Do You Know About Products

Why Your Awards Banquet Needs Personalized Business Award Products

If the majority of your employees have performed very well in the past year and you would like to thank them, then, you can offer them awards. Business awards are unique and you can make certain that your deserving employees will appreciate them. Instead of offering your employees with a lapel pin, ring, or a watch, you can provide them with customized business trophies which they can display anywhere they like.

In the present day, there are still a number of companies that provide ball caps, t-shirts, and sweatshirts as their awards to their employees. Even if these employees are pleased with the gesture of their employers, they still chose not to wear those items for the reason that they are not fond of it or maybe, they do not like to feel as if they are part of the company’s advertisement.

That is why you have to offer every deserving employee you have with a customized business trophy. It is important that your personalized business trophy includes the logo of your business as well as tag line which you like. It is also essential that you leave room not just for the name of your employee but also for the date as well as the reason why they are going to get their awards. Including an information that is exclusive to that worker at every opportunity you can get is recommended, like this, they will definitely feel that the award they will receive is really special.

With custom trophies, you have the opportunity of creating exceptional pieces that will surely stand out. No matter what kind of business award you want to offer to your employees as it can be plaques or it can be trophies, personalization is a very essential element which must not be overlooked. It is vital that all the names of your employees are spelled accurately and also, other essential information is all correct before they receive the award. Naturally, if the names and the information are both incorrect, the award will be deemed as worthless.

It is highly suggested that you also set up an awards banquet that all your employees can enjoy. Remember, taking the time to plan this awards banquet is what you have to do as your employees also deserve to enjoy themselves since they are also doing their best to help you and your company be successful. You can rent a spacious hall that can accommodate all your employees and their family, and hire an excellent caterer from your area and order the most excellent business award products for the awards night.

Source: click here

Questions About Systems You Must Know the Answers To

Importance of NCR Counterpoint POS Systems

The fact that many retailers look towards the long run makes them a bit blind for the present. They end up taking some things lightly. NCR Counterpoint POS Programs is a game changer, since it allows you to become securely set in the present at the same time planning you for the future, which is better for most retailers as you may be able to put your eyes in both ends. You have to understand and appreciate benefits that come with use of NCR Counterpoint POS. Below are the advantages that come with the use of NCR Counterpoint POS Systems.

Speedy check outs

Due to the undeniable fact that it uses barcode scanning, the sales and check-out process are sleek. Additionally, it enhances on reliability when setting up data in comparison with putting in data manually. With NCR Counterpoint POS, you can be able to conserve time during check out method by immediately calling up sale packages and tag along goods. This increases consumer service by increasing movement of lines and enabling smooth running of the business enterprise. In addition it contributes to escalation in gains, because a lot of people could possibly get served within a short time consequently more and more customers.

Building client loyalty

Building customer loyalty is one of the biggest gifts a retailer might have, to get a loyal customer is an advantage that should not be lost. It’s of the popular viewpoint that devoted or regular clients spend more money as compared to the newest buyers and so are also easy to sell to. Superior supervision of consumer relationship is thus of great meaning. An already existing relation between you and your customer is among the greatest assets of your business and should not be tampered with. Using NCR Counterpoint POS helps you build and maintain customer loyalty, thus helping your business grow.

Mobile POS

Mobile POS provide a lot of strengths when it comes to on-floor interaction and superior marketing. You will be able to generate offline ticket entry using a portable hand held POS instead of huge devices, and in different settings. As for the case of the on floor conversation, the Cellular POS can signal a member of staff to attend to your specific needs. Special alerts are used by the customers in your special email list, where as those that receive assistance and are not in the list, can be added immediately. Getting your clients E-Mail is important when promoting your retails shop.

Offline entry of ticket

This is one of the greatest advantage of using NCR Counterpoint POS Systems. You’re ready to produce income irrespective of your connection to the inner computer. You can use the NCR Counterpoint POS Systems anywhere and when you join it to your interior computer, most of the information gathered is updated to the computer.

Source: http://www.chispamagazine.com/your-strategy/mompreneur/small-business-big-ideas-going-extra-mile-impress-clients/

If You Read One Article About Recruiters, Read This One

Outsourcing Recruitment: A List of Advantages There are always some challenges when it comes to outsourcing parts of your business to an outside organization. You end up giving other people a certain amount of control and you would need to trust other people with doing what’s best for your business. When picking out an outsourced recruiting company, you should put integrity as a top priority. A good quality outsourced recruiting company should be trustworthy, reliable, and honest. It is important to have a special team assigned to meeting your business staffing needs. Choose how you would want to communicate with the company and recruitment firm, as well as the services you would need. Good communication and understanding is essential for a successful relationship with your recruitment company.
Learning The “Secrets” of Tips
A service you can have can either be for seasonal or long term staffing needs. There also needs to be different kinds of support from a team or a designated person who can be able to provide you with whatever you need. You will also be able to have competent professionals who know the latest training techniques. Recruiters will either work in your facility or offsite, it all depends on you.
What Has Changed Recently With Recruiters?
With outsourcing of recruitment services, you can obtain confidence. It can be difficult to recruit people. There are issues like limited recruitment pool, geography issues, and filing positions problem that you might be dealing with. It can be costly to have a human resource staff and train them as well. This will often be a burden for the company. You will be able to get the best recruits if you let the experts handle the recruitment process since they will have the proper training and complete tools to do so. The best employees will be screened and hired when the recruitment firm will perform the whole recruitment process. You wouldn’t need to worry about your in-house people missing out on their work once you outsource your recruitment process. You can save money in the end when you hire an outsourced recruitment company rather than do the process yourself. An outsourced recruitment agency will have the right experience, and will also follow best practices when it comes to researching and work related to recruitment. You can be assured of good quality service from these recruitment companies because their methods and procedures are always updated, monitored, and measured. They have productivity benchmarks to follow during recruitment. You can acquire the best talent and will also count on their high reliability. The right people can make a difference in the success of your company. Your business can be affected with just a small mistake made during the recruitment process. By hiring a reputable recruitment company, you can be assured of an effective recruiting solution.